Friday, July 10, 2020
How to Write an Argumentative Essay Topic With SamplesIf you are looking for ideas about how to write an argumentative essay topic with samples, here are some good tips. You will not be able to succeed if you do not carefully choose your examples. You need to understand that there are two kinds of people, the majority and the minority. The minority group wants to see their position defended, and the majority does not want the topic reviewed, but the content of the article is important.Let us talk a little about essay topics with samples. A sample topic may be a research paper or some other type of topic. Most online sources that specialize in writing theses are going to be interested in helping you with samples. Many writers are under the impression that if you only have one or two pages to start with that you can write an argumentative essay topic.The fact is that you can go to online samples sites and get several samples for free. After choosing a topic, then it is time to learn ho w to write an argumentative essay topic with samples. The trick is to find out what is being said and then write an essay using that information. What is being said on an online site could be used as the basis for a research paper.Many times you will find that the content of the article is about a minority group that is not well known. When you write this type of article, you should not take any one word out of context. You are sure to come across topics that you will not think of that you might use in your essay.The next thing you need to do is to answer the question: 'How would the minority group react to the results of the test?' The content of the essay will depend on the test. Take the opportunity to discuss the reaction of the group to the results of the test. After doing this, you can put in a conclusion. While you are thinking about the conclusion, write about the reaction to the test.You may want to work in some information about study groups. In any event, you will have to decide what is important for your writing. By doing so, you will begin to create the best possible article topic with samples. When you work this way, you will create something that has not been done before. This will make your subject more interesting to many people.Writing online essays is a great way to test your writing skills. It is not a good idea to use every word in the dictionary. This will give the reader a headache.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Why do people cheat on their partners? Conventional wisdom suggests that we enjoy the flattering attention of othersÃ and that doing something that we know is wrong can be an exhilarating experience. Others reason that some might have trouble staying committed, or simply enjoy sex so much that they cannot help themselves. Of course, some people are unhappy in their relationshipsÃ and cheat in search of a better alternative. But a study published in the American Sociological ReviewÃ found a previously unknown influence on infidelity: being economically dependent on a partner makes one more likely to cheat. Economic Dependence on Ones Partner Increases Risk of Cheating Dr. Christin L. Munch, assistant professor of sociology at theÃ University of Connecticut, found that in a given year there is a five percent chance that women who are completely economically dependent on their husbands will be unfaithful, while for economically dependent men, there is a fifteen percent chance that they will cheat on their wives.Ã Munch conducted the study using survey data collected annually from 2001 through 2011 for the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which included 2,750 married people between the ages of 18 and 32. So why are economically dependent men more likely to cheat than are women in the same position? What sociologists have already learned about heteronormative gender role dynamics helps explain the situation.Ã Speaking about her study, Munch told the American Sociological Association, Extramarital sex allows men undergoing a masculinity threat Ã¢â¬â that is not being primary breadwinners, as is culturally expectedÃ Ã¢â¬â to engage in behavior culturally associated with masculinity. She continued, For men, especially young men, the dominant definition of masculinity is scripted in terms of sexual virility and conquest, particularly with respect to multiple sex partners. Thus, engaging in infidelity may be a way of reestablishing threatened masculinity. Simultaneously, infidelity allows threatened men to distance themselves from, and perhaps punish, their higher earning spouses. Women Who Are Dominant Earners Are Less Likely to Cheat Interestingly, Munchs study also revealed that the greater the extent to which women are dominant breadwinners, the less likely they are to cheat. In fact, those who are the sole breadwinner are the least likely to cheat among women. Munch points out that this fact is connected to previous research that found that women who are primary breadwinners in heterosexual partnerships behave in ways that are designed to minimize the cultural hit on their partners masculinity that is produced by their financial dependency. They do things like downplay their accomplishments, act in deference to their partners, and do more housework to make up for playing an economic role in their families that society still expects men to play. Sociologists refer to this kind of behavior as deviance neutralization, which is meant to neutralize the effect of violating social norms. Men Who are Dominant Earners Are Also More Likely to Cheat Conversely, men who contribute seventy percent of a couples combined income are the least likely to cheat among men Ã¢â¬â a figure that increases with the ratio of their contribution up to that point. However, men who contribute more than seventy percent are increasingly more likely to cheat. Munch reasons that men in this situation expect that their partners will tolerate bad behavior because of their economic dependency. She emphasizes, though, that this increase in infidelity among men who are primary breadwinners is far smaller than the increased rate among those who are economically dependent. The takeaway? Women at either extreme of the economic balance in their marriages to men have legitimate cause to worry about infidelity. The research suggests that economically egalitarian relationships are the most stable, at least in terms of the threat of infidelity.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This movie is about Chris Kyle, who is a dedicated Navy SEAL sniper. He is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The LegendÃ¢â¬ because he is one of the greatest, deadliest snipers and has killed dozens of people. American Sniper really shows the effect war has on a person and how Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder changed his life. Throughout his four tours in war, Chris was exposed to actual and threatened death. Which is one of the requirements to have PTSD. A lot of those situations where he experienced the actual or threatened death were people he cared about deeply, which definitely impacted him. Not only that, but he had killed dozens of people as well so he witnessed it all in person and had a direct experience. The four categories of symptoms for PTSD are intrusion, avoidance, negative cognitions/mood, and arousal/reactivity. He clearly displayed symptoms in each of these four categories especially when he would return home to his family. There was a scene where Chris was sitting in a chair staring at a TVÃ¢â¬âthat was not onÃ¢â¬âbut there were sounds of constant gun shots and a helicopter. He was having an auditory hallucination, which falls under the category of intrusion. Another symptom Chris presented was avoidance. When his wife, Taya, asked him what he wanted to do that day, he did not want to leave the house. This was probably because he was avoiding any situation which could remind him of the traumatic events he had experienced. Although, that was not the only thing he avoided. Each timeShow MoreRelatedThe Legend of Sleepy Hollow: Book vs. Movie1877 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesTHE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW: BOOK VS. MOVIE 2011 Outline: A) Introduction: general overview. B) Comparison of book and movie: 1) plot; 2) character; 3) settings. C) Conclusion. Foreword: This research paper discusses differences and similarities between the book by W. 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El Cid (the movie), The Conquerors: El Cid (the documentary) and El Cid: The Making of a Legend, are the three modern biographies that based most of their research off of the popular historical references, Los Mocedades de Rodrigo, The Poem of the Cid and The World of El Cid. It is up to the reader to decideRead MoreIchabod Crane: The Man and the Movie Essay1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWashington IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Legend of Sleepy HollowÃ¢â¬ is a magnificent short story, with action, superstition, and a little humor all rolled into one. The story of the headless horseman has scared litt le children of Sleepy Hollow for many years. Then along came Hollywood and decided that Washington IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Legend of Sleepy HollowÃ¢â¬ needed something more. Hollywood needed a more exciting main character in Ichabod Crane and story line to appeal to the twentieth century. 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Question: Discuss about the Importance of Implementation of Digitized tracking and Sensor System for a Parcel Posed Company. Answer: Introduction This project depicts the importance of implementing properly digitized tracking and sensor system for a Parcel Post Company named as NZ Courier. The role of the asset manager is to manage the couriers properly so that is could reach the desired destination within allotted time and estimated cost. If the company enables to server their parcel properly and securely as well then the company will be able to gain competitive advantages and effective revenue as well. The company already has various barcode scanning approaches including parcel tracking mechanism however some of the technical aspects associated to technical tracking are missing in this system. In order to minimize those issues it is necessary to identify and analyze proper risks and for minimizing those risks proper risk Breakdown Structures are also required to be developed by the company. Even in order to reduce the work pressure from the project team members it is required to develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) accordingly. With the help of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and proper project scheduling it is expected that it would be completed within estimated time and budget as well. All the risks associated to the parcel tracking system are not equally effective thus based on the priority of the risks proper risk mitigate strategies are needed to be developed and those are also elaborated in this report. Defining the project scope The scope of this project is mentioned below: It is necessary for the asset manager to incorporate the missing information related to parcel tracking, when the parcels are between the depots or within the trucks for deposit. The parcels are needed to be sorted automatically at the depots Proper trackers must be added to the containers during the loading and unloading of the parcels from the trucks Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) must be incorporated to the containers to avoid the plastic boxes to get collapsed Though the containers have proper GPS trackers but do not have any sensors thus proper sensors should be incorporated to the system Adoption of proper software to track the details of the containers those are holding the parcels. It will help to identify that truck which is holding the parcel and even incorporation of GPS location trackers are also required to be added to the system. Not only this but also many other scopes of the projects are there those are as follows: Adoption of new software that will help the customers to track their parcels with new tracking information gained from the software Based on the priorities of the risks proper risk assessment, analysis and risk mitigation strategies are also required to be adopted To provide advanced visibility to the consumers within estimated budget and time as well Establishing the project priorities During the study of the Parcel Post Company project details, it has been determined that, the company serves effective tracking technology and GPS mechanism to their system however additional software is required to be incorporated to the system to minimize the rate of risks. As the company does not have proper parcel tracking software thus, the consumers fail to track the condition of the parcels. Proper business strategies and tracing software are needed to be adopted by the company to establish the project priorities. The solutions proposed by the system developer include the following: Currently the company has a barcode scanning system but does not have accurate parcel tracking software. Thus, tracking software should be incorporated to the system to track the current condition of the parcels. The software must have the ability to include all the information related to the parcel Another objective of the project is to develop software that could automatically sort the parcel when those are in the trucks or even in the deposit, loading and unloading period. The containers those are holding the parcels must have proper RFID tags for tracking the current condition of the system Accurate sensors also needed to be adopted for the consumers that allow tracking the current situation and location of their parcels. GPS tracker must be incorporated to identify those containers Work Breakdown Structure Figure 1: Work breakdown Structure for NZ Courier (Source: Created by author) Development of Risk Breakdown structure Figure 2: Risk breakdown Structure for NZ Courier (Source: Created by author) Evaluation and prioritization of the identified risks After analyzing the Parcel Post Company, the NZ Courier parcel selling details it is recognized that the company is facing many managerial and security level issues as well. The risks associated to the Post Parcel Company are divided in to four different segments that are technical risks, external risks, organizational risks and project risks. The risks are elaborated in the below section: Technical risks: Requirements: If the project manager fails to identify the resources including the hardware, software and equipments as well then the system developers will not be able to develop the desired delivery system for their company ad consumers as well. In order to track the current situation of the parcels high storage capacity is also required to store the details of the parcels and their consumers details as well, therefore, the system developers must contract to proper vendors. Technology: If the Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier could not consider all the technologies accurately then, due to lack of security the details of the consumers and the confidential parcel details might get hijacked by the unwanted users. In addition to this the GPS, sensors and software should be handled properly by the technical experts to avoid the applicator level errors. Complexity in system and interface: In order to develop the parcel delivery system for Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier, the operational complexity should be reduced and proper interface should be adopted so that the technical expert deliver a secured and advanced delivery system to the consumers. Quality: Quality is referred to as one of the most important things that is strictly required to be considered by the system developers. It is necessary for Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier to deliver a user friendly and simple platform to their consumers. However, if the developers fail to meet the requirement of the consumers in terms of satisfactory and on time delivery of the parcels then, the revenue of the company will be interrupted. External risks: The external risks includes a those risks those are not directly but indirectly associated to the Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier delivery system and those are as follows: Contractors and the suppliers: If the suppliers and the contractor unable to serve as per the requirement of the company and advanced system developers then, then it will face risks. The technical level suppliers are needed to serve as per the requirement of the consumers. Market: According to the demand of the parcel courier in the market the requirement of the consumers changes. Thus, the market condition is the most thing that helps the company to gain measurable revenue from the competitive market. Consumers: The behaviors of the consumers are the other aspects those are needed to be considered. If the consumers do not feel satisfied with the service structure and even if the cost is seemed to be higher to the consumers compared to the other parcel delivering company then due to this reason the Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier will face major risks. Weather: As in this delivery system the trucks act as the delivery media therefore, the condition of weather is not partially rather completely related to the delivery system. Due to has weather condition delay in delivery ad even the cost for the consumers might also get enhanced which is a major risk to the company, Organizational risks Organizational risks are the risks those are negatively impacting the revenue of the Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier directly. The identified organizational risks are as follows: Project risks: If the project manager fails to identify the project scope, objectives are requirements properly then the company will definitely face major loss. Dependency: The project requirements and the resources are completely dependent on each other thus if any of the requirements gets interrupted then, the entire project or parcel delivery system will be interrupted completely. Resources: If the asset manager fails to identify the resources properly then the revenue of the Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier will be negatively affected. Fund: In order to incorporate tracking to the system accurate capital is needed to be invested by the project sponsors. If the finance manager fails to do so then the company will definitely fails to meet the requirement of the consumers. Project oriented risks: While advancing the existing delivery system of Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier, it is necessary for the company to develop a project accordingly. The project oriented risks include estimation, planning, controlling and communication. The finance manager must estimate the budget accurately so that all the required resources could be used during the implementation of the project. If the project manager and the project team manager do not use open communication approach then, the project team members will not be able to interact with the project manager with their creative ideas. In addition to the communication approaches proper control is needed. If the project manager fails to track the project progress properly with control and monitoring mechanisms then, it will face huge risks. Development of solution for the prioritized risks All the risks are not equally important to be mitigated thus, based on the project budget and priorities the risks are needed to be mitigated. Name of the Risks Mitigation strategies Information Theft It has been found that due to lack of protection mechanisms the information stored in the RFID and sensors are getting hijacked by the external attackers quite easily. In order to reduce the rate of information theft proper security mechanisms are needed to be adopted by Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier, in terms of encryption to avoid the data to get theft by others. Data Loss For mitigating the issues associated to parcel information hacking it is necessary for the system developers to incorporate proper security aspects. Shipment delay Weather is the most important thing that affects the shipment of the parcels. In order to mitigate these issues it is necessary for the system developers to add certain optional delivery approaches to avoid consumers loss. In addition to this, the charge of the parcel delivery should be optimized compared to other delivery companies to grab ore number f consumers. Project oriented issues While developing the project it is necessary to estimate the project budget properly along with proper time also. With proper time and budget estimation, controlling and communication approaches the issues associated to projects can be minimized completely. Conclusion From the overall discussion it can be concluded that Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier, is willing to deliver a secured as well as time efficient parcels to their consumers. Though Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier holds most of the advanced technologies to the delivery system but at the same time many delivery level errors are also associated to it. In order to mitigate those issues, software should be adopted by company to allow the consumers to track the current situation of their parcels. Not only this but also with the help of the GPS location tracker and sensors both the company owners and the consumers will be able to track their parcels. Even the containers those are holding the parcels have RFID tags and theses tags holds the details of the parcels properly. In order to identify the containers the software also stands very much helpful. The risks associated to the software or the previous systems are illustrated in this report. However, all the risks are not equally affect ing the system. Thus, the risks are needed to be prioritized and that is also elaborated in this report. After the identification, evaluation and analysis of the risks proper risk mitigation strategies are also elaborated in this report. Apart from the risk management system a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is also developed in this report for Parcel Post Company the NZ Courier. Bibliography Browning, T.R. Ramasesh, R.V., (2015). Reducing unwelcome surprises in project management.MIT Sloan Management Review,56(3), p.53. Burke, R., (2013). Project management: planning and control techniques.New Jersey, USA. Drury-Grogan, M.L., (2014). Performance on agile teams: Relating iteration objectives and critical decisions to project management success factors.Information and Software Technology,56(5), pp.506-515. Fleming, Q.W. Koppelman, J.M., ((2016)), December. Earned value project management. Project Management Institute. Jalal, M.P. Koosha, S.M., (2015). Identifying organizational variables affecting project management office characteristics and analyzing their correlations in the Iranian project-oriented organizations of the construction industry.International Journal of Project Management,33(2), pp.458-466. Kerzner, H., (2013).Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Kwak, Y.H., Walewski, J., Sleeper, D. Sadatsafavi, H., (2014). What can we learn from the Hoover Dam project that influenced modern project management?.International Journal of Project Management,32(2), pp.256-264. Larson, E.W. Gray, C., (2013).Project Management: The Managerial Process with MS Project. McGraw-Hill. Lenfle, S., (2014). Toward a genealogy of project management: Sidewinder the management of exploratory projects.International journal of project management,32(6), pp.921-931. Machado, T.C.S., Pinheiro, P.R. Tamanini, I., (2015). Project management aided by verbal decision analysis approaches: a case study for the selection of the best SCRUM practices.International Transactions in Operational Research,22(2), pp.287-312. Martens, M.L. Carvalho, M.M., (2017). Key factors of sustainability in project management context: A survey exploring the project managers' perspective.International Journal of Project Management,35(6), pp.1084-1102. Martinelli, R.J. Milosevic, D.Z., ((2016)).Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley Sons. Mastrogiacomo, S., Missonier, S. Bonazzi, R., (2014). Talk before it's too late: Reconsidering the role of conversation in information systems project management.Journal of Management Information Systems,31(1), pp.47-78. Mir, F.A. Pinnington, A.H., (2014). Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance project success.International journal of project management,32(2), pp.202-217. Mller, R., Gluckler, J. Aubry, M., (2013). A relational typology of project management offices.Project Management Journal,44(1), pp.59-76. Phillips, J., (2013).PMP, Project Management Professional (Certification Study Guides). McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. Saltz, J. Crowston, K., (2017), January. Comparing data science project management methodologies via a controlled experiment. InProceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Schwalbe, K., (2015).Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Teller, J., (2013). Portfolio risk management and its contribution to project portfolio success: An investigation of organization, process, and culture.Project Management Journal,44(2), pp.36-51. Verzuh, E., (2015).The fast forward MBA in project management. John Wiley Sons.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
The Wife of His Youth People often make the categories of race, class, gender, sexuality, age, physical condition, etc., contend for the title of most oppressed. Within "race," various populations groups then compete for that top spot. Through the book, The Wife of His Youth, by Charles Wadell Chesnutt one can learn that racism existed within the "race," colored mattered, and that racism evolves throughout the racial history. Racism existed within the race. People within the groups competed to be at the top. In The Wife of His Youth, the main character Mr. Ryder is a highly respected man in his society called the Blue Veins. The Blue Veins is a society for the colored people who have white skin that their veins show. Mr. Ryder is faced with a situation where he has to choose to stay at the top by hiding the truth and marrying a highly respected woman in the Blue Veins, Mrs. Molly Dixon or reveal his secret and be married to a woman who is considered low among the races. However Mr. Ryder chooses to reveal that a former slave is his wife, but in order for him to come to the conclusion he struggles much about how the others would feel about this situation because mostly likely people of his society would look down upon him. Color matters within the race. In The Wife of His Youth, the Blue Veins is a society that does not emphasize culture of the race, but how light the color of their skins are. The people of the society must have really light skin to be even considered to be a member of the Blue Veins. The wife of his youth, a former slave, Liza Jane would never be considered to be a member of the Blue Veins because she was very black and her social status in society was of a former plantation worker. One could also see that Mr. Ryder struggles whether or not to reveal his secret to the Blue Veins because colored mattered and he did not know if they would be able to accept the fact that he was married to his ugly black woman. In addition, Mr. Ryder had to somehow gain recognition from the Blue Veins that it was okay to have a wife outside the approval of the race, the society. He asks, "Shall you acknowledge her?" (p. 56) He wait for their nod of some kind of positive reaction. Racism evolves; it has no single, permanently fixed set of characteristics. Racism is not a set theory in the minds of the people, but instead a theory that constantly changes according to the time and the needs of the environment. Mr. Ryder in the Blue Veins who was in a high position who accepted only the light-colored is able to reconsider his status for the wife of his youth. He was able to persuade the Blue Veins so that the wife of his youth can be accepted in the society. Also by reading The Wife of His Youth, one knows that Mr. Ryder was a former slave, too who just happens to be free and of high status at the present moment. After he becomes "a someone" in society he wishes to forget about his past until the wife of his youth comes along his path and makes his decide, truth or fame. Through the book, The Wife of His Youth, one can learn that racism existed within the "race," colored mattered, and that racism evolves. The challenge is to understand the changes of racial history and draw strength from our understandings. Also today one has to acknowledge the fact that other races exist, not only blacks. In doing so, one has to proceed with both boldness and infinite care. Talking race is an intellectual minefield; for every social observation, one can find three contradictions and four necessary qualifications. Crawling through the complexity, it helps to think: "keep your eye on the prize, which is uniting against the monster."
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Haiti Essays - Presidents Of Haiti, Elections In Haiti, Free Essays Haiti Want to send this story to another AOL member? Click on the heart at the top of this window. Haiti Opposition Candidate Released By MICHAEL NORTON .c The Associated Press PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti (AP) - Haitian authorities released an opposition candidate and four associates Saturday, nearly three weeks after they were arrested following regional elections, an opposition leader said. Authorities dropped charges of incitement to violence against candidate Jean Limongy and the four others, said Evans Paul of Limongy's Space for Concord five-party coalition. Limongy, a candidate for a lower house seat, and the others were arrested May 23, two days after local and legislative elections. More than 2 million Haitian voters, about 60 percent of the electorate, cast their ballots in the violence-free elections. The Lavalas Family party of former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide gained control of the upper house and was leading in most lower-house races as vote counting continued this week. Since the vote, police have arrested at least 37 opposition candidates and activists. Sixteen have been released. Space for Concord militant Laurore Noel, who was arrested with Limongy, remained in prison in Petit-Goave jail, about 35 miles southwest of the capital, Paul said. On Wednesday, three candidates projected as the winners for seats on the Port-au-Prince city council under Aristide's Lavalas Family banner were arrested on charges of having false police identification cards. Elections for legislative seats in Haiti's troubled Grand'-Anse district, where the vote was delayed due to technical difficulties, are set for Sunday, officials said. Haiti has been without a Parliament since President Rene Preval dismissed legislators in 1999 to resolve a power struggle. AP-NY-06-10-00 2053EDT Copyright 2000 The Associated Press. The information contained in the AP news report may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority of The Associated Press. All active hyperlinks have been inserted by AOL. Bibliography Want to send this story to another AOL member? Click on the heart at the top of this window. Haiti Opposition Candidate Released By MICHAEL NORTON .c The Associated Press PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti (AP) - Haitian authorities released an opposition candidate and four associates Saturday, nearly three weeks after they were arrested following regional elections, an opposition leader said. Authorities dropped charges of incitement to violence against candidate Jean Limongy and the four others, said Evans Paul of Limongy's Space for Concord five-party coalition. Limongy, a candidate for a lower house seat, and the others were arrested May 23, two days after local and legislative elections. More than 2 million Haitian voters, about 60 percent of the electorate, cast their ballots in the violence-free elections. The Lavalas Family party of former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide gained control of the upper house and was leading in most lower-house races as vote counting continued this week. Since the vote, police have arrested at least 37 opposition candidates and activists. Sixteen have been released. Space for Concord militant Laurore Noel, who was arrested with Limongy, remained in prison in Petit-Goave jail, about 35 miles southwest of the capital, Paul said. On Wednesday, three candidates projected as the winners for seats on the Port-au-Prince city council under Aristide's Lavalas Family banner were arrested on charges of having false police identification cards. Elections for legislative seats in Haiti's troubled Grand'-Anse district, where the vote was delayed due to technical difficulties, are set for Sunday, officials said. Haiti has been without a Parliament since President Rene Preval dismissed legislators in 1999 to resolve a power struggle. AP-NY-06-10-00 2053EDT Copyright 2000 The Associated Press. The information contained in the AP news report may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority of The Associated Press. All active hyperlinks have been inserted by AOL.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
The success of a construction project is usually determined from the initial stages through the procurement process chosen. The procurement process will influence the whole construction process and able to determine the success of the construction projects. This paper will analyze three key procurement methods namely design and construct procurement method, management procurement method and collaborative procurement. This paper will analyse the positive and negative impacts, which are accrued when these methods are adopted in construction projects. Additionally, it will look at the benefits and risks, which the different stakeholders experience when either of the methods is chosen. One of the key procurement method, which is gaining popularity in construction projects, is the design and constructs procurement method. As the name suggests, the procurement method can allow the commencement of the construction phase while the design process is still on the process (Victorian State Government, 2006). The adoption of this method is usually done to ensure that the completion of the project is completed in time. Moreover, under this procurement method, different details of the project are given in advance and therefore enhancing the stakeholders planning. Additionally, under this method, the contractor can bear most of the risks in design and implementation of the project. The terms of the contract sum are provided through competitive pricing, which the client can control (Infrastructure Australia, 2012). Under this method, different approaches, which are able to define the relationship and responsibilities of different stakeholders, are usually stated. The following diagrams are able to highlight the different approaches, which are used when this method is applied in a construction project. Under this method, the client can control only one firm which they enter into a contract with regarding the project. The firm has the responsibility for design and construction of the project. The few stakeholders involved can increase the operational efficiency when implementing projects (Mortledge, Smith, and Kashiwagi, 2006). This is able to enhance the commitment of the resources to one area and limit the time of contacting different people separately such as designers and contractor. Overlapping of activities is possible which enhances the implementation cycle. Time is usually saved when the different activities take place at the same time, and this enhances completion of the project within the stipulated timeline. Moreover, the contractor has a contribution on the design parameters, and this enhances the constructibility of the project. Additionally, the cost of implementation is under control when this method is used. The maximum price is usually determined in the procurement stage, and this ensures that any escalation is met within the set budget. Nevertheless, this method has some key flaws, which are experienced when itÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen to implement construction projects. The project specifications can easily change according to the needs of the client. Since the lump sum cost is fixed, it creates a hard implementation time when the specification changes (National Research Council (U.S.), & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.), 2016). This can lead to an expensive project than it was anticipated before. Also, this method requires comparison of different designs. This may take a lot of time and therefore take up implementation timeline. Moreover, the client is required to commit to a concept design before the detailed and complete designs are completed. This raises high chances for changes while the project is under implementation stage and making the project expensive (Construction Specifications Institute, 2005). Moreover, the client has to prepare all the contract documents in advance and through this method, difficulties may be experienced, where the documents are inadequate and insufficiently comprehensive due to client limitation to prepare them. Several stakeholders involved in these projects can enjoy when it is chosen to implement a construction project. First, the client has limited risks since the contractor has much of the control of the project. This means that the contractor and not the client will sort out financial escalation. Secondly, the client can receive the completed project on time. This is because overlapping of activities is possible and gives the contractors and subcontractors enough time to beat the project deadline (Construction, 2016). The method enhances proper construction method by the contractor since they were involved in the design stages. This gives them ample time for implementation and enhancing the cooperation of the different ideas. Some of the stakeholders are able to experience some problems when this method is chosen. First, the client is required to prepare the contract document, an exercise, which the client may, not be experienced in doing (Gould & Joyce, 2014). The client may experience this problem when preparing the documents. Secondly, the contractor is able to bear all the risks and therefore when the costs exceed the contractor can experience the losses. When changes occur, the cost of the project is able to change but the lump sum cost is unlikely to change and therefore the contractor bears that additional cost. The projects, which their design scopes are unlikely to change, suit this procurement method. In addition, projects whose building is functional rather than prestigious aspects are more stresses suit this method (Gould, 2012). Simple projects, where the technical knowledge is limited suit this method for implementation. Lastly, projects, which require quick implementation, need a procurement method like this to ensure quick implementation. Another upcoming procurement method in the construction projects is the management procurement. Under this procurement method, the client can appoint an independent professional team and a management contractor. This team can act as the adviser to the client in the preconstruction stages and able to carry out the construction works during the construction stage (Gould & Joyce, 2014). In addition, under this method, different approaches can as well be used. Some of these methods include management contracting, construction management and design and manage. The different stakeholders under this method relate according to the following diagram Management contracting- this method requires the appointment of an independent professional team which will advise the client and later carry out the construction works (Austroads, 2007). Early start of the project can be achieved through this approach. Construction management Ã¢â¬â this approach requires a management contractor who is able to determine the different project aspects (Arain, 2016). Work contractor is also chosen and enhance the implementation of the project works. The management contractor can manage the other contractors. Design and manage Ã¢â¬âA contractor is chosen to head the design and implementation stage of the construction project. The works contractor and consultant take different responsibilities under this approach. There are different pros, which are achieved using this method. First, the client is able to choose a single firm, which he or she deals with. This enhances the management and coordination from the client perspective (Mortledge, Smith, and Kashiwagi, 2006). Additionally, overlapping of activities is possible through this method and therefore enhancing early completion of the project. Constructability is usually enhanced since the contractor is involved in the design stage when this method is chosen. Competitiveness in tendering process ensures value for money to the client. Additionally, all roles and responsibilities to the different stakeholders are usually stipulated and therefore minimising conflict of interest. Lastly, the flexibility of design is usually possible to suit the client preferences. First, this method is not certain about the cost of the project, and it is only known at the end of the project completion. This means that cost escalation can be able to increase and making the implementation stage hard. Additionally, the client is much involved in the process and therefore requires client who has knowledge of the construction process (Gould, 2012). Additionally, the client is able to lose the control of the design, a responsibility which constructors can take. This means clients needs may not be addressed fully (Harris, Mccaffer & Edum-Fotwe, 2013). Lastly, clear definition of the implementation timeline and all information of the project is required before the implementation stage commences, which may be hard to provide. The client has an easy time in control of the single firm chosen to manage the project. This enhances the collaboration and coordination between the client and implementation team (Fewings, 2013). The methods provide enough time for the contractor to complete the project on time through the overlapping of activities. Additionally, the client can achieve the value of money for the project through the competitive tendering and selection of the implementation team. Each role and responsibility of the stakeholders is to know and therefore enhancing their operation. The client is able to lose the control of the design aspects of the project. This means that their needs may not well articulated as they need. Since the client is not in the design and management part, the end product may not suit their needs (Fewings, 2013). The cost risk is available to the works contractor and the client. Since the cost is uncertain, changes on the cost are likely to occur and therefore likely to suppress the set budget. Informed client about the construction process is a key element to this method. A problem may arise on the management team when the client does not understand these processes. Simple projects, which the clients can understand, are most preferred to be carried out through this method. Projects, which can easily change also, require this method for their implementation. Under this method, different stakeholders in the construction project come together. The risks involved in the project are share according to the different responsibilities, which the shareholders have in the project (Gould, 2012). This procurement method requires stakeholders who can share the same ideas and aspects concerning the project. Under this method, the flow of different elements can be represented as in the following diagram. Transparency level is usually high under this method, and this is a key pro, which this method can bring in procurement sector (Centre for Excellence and Innovation in Infrastructure Delivery, 2010). The different parties are able to collaborate and able to bring the value of money to the project. High resource utilisation is also achieved in this method. Effective implementation of the project is usually achieved through the high consultation in the project. Different ideas are presented enhancing the innovations and implementation of the project. Lastly, due to the high involvement of stakeholders, the projected uncertainty is usually low. This method requires a lot of time during the implementation stage. This may lead to the project timeline to be exceeded (Arain, 2016). The high involvement and coordination require the high trust to the members. This level may not be possible. Opportunistic behaviour may arise and therefore increasing the risk of implementation. The client can forecast on their needs of the project through the early involvement in design stages (Gould, & Joyce, 2013). This enhances the client to prepare and manage their resources for the project implementation. The contractors have an easy time in implementation due to different ideas from stakeholders. The high quality project is achieved for the client through the collaborative ideas. The client may not receive the project on time due to the increased collaboration process. Trust issues among the stakeholders are a problem, which may affect the contractors working (Harris, Mccaffer & Edum-Fotwe, 2013). Increased implementation timeline is a risk to the contractor since additional costs may accrue. Complex project requires this method to enhance their implementation. Additionally, high project requires this method to take the advantage of different input from different people. Procurement methods are key in the implementation of the construction project. The choice of the procurement method depends on the details of the project. Each method has its pros and cons and the areas, which they will perfectly suit to bring the best out of the projects. The different stakeholders can derive different benefits on each method, which is chosen. Additionally, the risk is a key part of the construction process and therefore whichever method is chosen, some problems may be experienced. (2016). Construction. https://trrjournalonline.trb.org/toc/trr/2573. ARAIN, F. M. 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